Pilot study from the Les Mills Research Lab compares exertion and enjoyment levels between a live class in the gym and two digital formats (live-stream and on demand) of the same workout, with surprising results.

Taking a class at the gym brings better results and more enjoyment than doing the same workout digitally at home, according to new research presented at the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) Conference this month (1st June).

Believed to be the first of its kind, the pilot study from the Les Mills Research Lab compared a traditional fitness class in a gym setting with home-based live-stream and on-demand sessions performing the same workout. Participants’ average heart rate was 14 per cent higher during the gym class compared to the live-stream and on-demand sessions, despite being the exact same class format and Release.

As well as motivating them to work harder, the gym-based workout was rated by participants as being 13 per cent more enjoyable and 14 per cent more satisfying than the two digital workouts.

Researchers believe the greater intensity and more positive perceptions of a gym-based class can be attributed to what they call ‘Groupness’. The term was coined after previous research from Penn State University found that people in live group exercise classes experience increased levels of individual exertion, enjoyment, and satisfaction as a result of exercising together in a studio, particularly when their movements are synchronised.


Dr Jinger Gottschall, Adjunct Associate Professor at the University of Colorado and Lead Researcher for the study, said:

“When considered with previous research, our findings show we really are social when it comes to working out – being together brings out the best in us.

“The combination of exercising as a group, led by an Instructor, in a gym studio setting, results in a more impactful and immersive workout than doing the same class at home via live-stream or on-demand. Having more fun and feeling connected also increases the likelihood of maintaining an exercise habit over a sustained period of time.”

Live-stream (live classes on screen with both the instructor and other participants visible) and on-demand (non-live, previously recorded classes on screen without other participants visible) workouts exploded in popularity during the pandemic, leading many to speculate that such digital fitness offerings could render gyms redundant. But gyms across the world have made a strong recovery since lockdown restrictions eased, with many leading chains having already exceeded pre-pandemic occupancy levels as fitness fans flock back to live workout experiences.

Bryce Hastings, Les Mills Head of Research and co-author of the study adds:

“Although live classes are best for maximising both physiological intensity and psychological perceptions, our research shows livestream and on-demand fitness class formats are viable options for maintaining regular physical activity routines.”

“In fact, study participants reported feeling less self-conscious and worried about their performance during the on-demand workout, highlighting its potential as a gateway into regular exercise for newcomers who may not yet feel confident enough to join a live gym class.

“A live class at the gym remains the pinnacle experience, but the rise of digital fitness and flexible working reinforces the notion that hybrid fitness habits will become the norm. The 2021 Global Fitness Report found the majority of exercisers now favor a 60:40 split between gym and home workouts, so it will be interesting to see how fitness habits shift as the world learns to live with COVID-19.”


Fifty-four regular BODYCOMBAT® participants from five different gyms across the US wore a Bluetooth heart-rate chest transmitter during three experimental conditions (live in gym, live-stream, on-demand) for the same version of the workout in random order.

The live class was completed in a gym or studio, with all study participants from that facility present. The live-stream class was completed at home with all study participants from that facility visible on screen. The on-demand class was completed at home watching a previously recorded video with no participants visible on screen.

After each session, participants completed a survey containing questions related to rate of perceived exertion, enjoyment, and satisfaction.


Les Mills is a global market leader in group fitness and team training solutions, delivered by 140,000 certified instructors in 21,000+ clubs across 110 countries. For 25 years, Les Mills Asia Pacific has been meeting the group fitness needs of clubs and Instructors in Australia and Southeast Asia, including Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Vietnam, Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Maldives, Guam, Laos and Papua New Guinea.

Les Mills Asia Pacific offers the Ultimate Group Fitness Solution to keep your members connected to your club, and to reach new audiences with omni-channel fitness solutions, both inside and outside your physical location. These include live and LES MILLS® Virtual classes in fitness facilities; on-demand classes for use at home or while travelling via LES MILLS+; LES MILLS Content (enabling you to host over 100 Les Mills workouts on your own website or app); award-winning, premium SMART TECH fitness equipment (for use in facilities or at home); live-streamingsolutions; comprehensive marketing support; world-class Instructor training;  and a proven Group Fitness Management system to help clubs achieve their maximum business potential. To find out how Les Mills Asia Pacific can help you create a healthy and sustainable business, contact your local Business Partnership Manager in Australia or Southeast Asia for a no-obligation consult.